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Robin C. Cover
    At the suggestion of Lou Burnard (a TEI-L list-owner and TEI editor)
I am posting the following short bibliography on SGML.  Archive copy will
be available later on the BITNET (uicvm) listserver as SHORTBIB MEMO.  I
submit this bibliography in the hope that SGML discussions germane to
the work of TEI will be enriched if all contributors are informed about
the basics of SGML as a metalanguage.  A number of popular
misconceptions about fundamental concepts in SGML (sometimes billed as
"a tagset" or "a formatting language" or "a markup language" -- none are
correct) frequently obscure public discussions.  Please pass along this
bibliography to interested parties, and encourage reading of at least
one of the titles in section 1 ("Introductions to SGML").  Many worthy
substitutes could be found among the hundreds of articles and books on
SGML, but I have found these representative titles helpful.  Note also
sub "6. Email-forums" that a dedicated SGML discussion may be found on
UseNet/UUCP News (comp.text.sgml), where Yuri Rubinsky and other SGML
experts have submitted highly informative postings.

Robin Cover

                            BRIEF BIBLIOGRAPHY



Barron, David.  "Why Use SGML?"  Electronic Publishing 2/1
    (April 1989) 3-24. CODEN: EPODEU; ISSN 0894-3982.  Abstract: The
    Standard Generalised Markup Language (SGML) is a recently-adopted
    International Standard (ISO 8879).  The paper presents some
    background material on markup systems, gives a brief account of
    SGML, and attempts to clarify the precise nature and purpose of
    SGML, which are widely misunderstood.  It then goes on to explore
    the reasons why SGML should (or should not) be used in preference
    to older-established systems.  A summary of the article is also
    printed in "Why Use SGML," SGML Users' Group Newsletter
    13 (August 1989) 10.

[Burnard, Lou.] "Use of SGML Markup."  Chapter 2 (pp. 9-38) in
    Guidelines for the Encoding and Interchange of Machine-Readable Texts
    (Text Encoding Initiative, Draft Version 1.0 - See below)

Coombs, James; Renear, Allen; DeRose, Steven . "Markup Systems and
    the Future of Scholarly Text Processing." CACM 30/11
    (1987) 933-947.  ISSN: 0001-0782;  cf. CACM 31/7 (July
    1988) 810-11)  Abstract: The authors argue that many word
    processing systems distract authors from their tasks of research
    and composition, toward concern with typographic and other tasks.
    Emphasis on "WYSIWYG", while helpful for display, has ignored a
    more fundamental concern: representing document structure.  Four
    main types of markup are analyzed: Punctuational (spaces,
    punctuation,...), presentational (layout, font choice,...),
    procedural (formatting commands), and descriptive (mnemonic labels
    for document elements).  Only some ancient manuscripts have
    no markup.  Any form of markup can be formatted for
    display, but descriptive markup is privileged because it reflects
    the underlying structure.  ISO SGML is a descriptive markup
    standard, but most benefits are available even before a standard
    is widely accepted.  A descriptively marked-up document is not
    tied to formatting or printing capabilities.  It is maintainable,
    for the typographic realization of any type of element can be
    changed in a single operation, with guaranteed consistency.  It
    can be understood even with <emph>no</> markup formatting
    software: compare "<blockquote>" to ".sk 3 a; .in +10 -10; .ls 0;
    .cp 2".  It is relatively portable across views, applications and
    systems.  Descriptive markup also minimizes cognitive demands: the
    author need only recall (or recognize in a menu) a mnemonic for
    the desired element, rather than also deciding how it is currently
    to appear, and recalling how to obtain that appearance.  Most of
    this extra work is thrown away before final copy; descriptive
    markup allows authors to focus on authorship. (abstract supplied
    by Steve DeRose)

DeRose, Steven J.; Durand, David G.; Mylonas, Elli; Renear, Allen
    H.  "What is Text, Really?"  Journal of Computing in Higher
    Education 1/2 (Winter 1990) 3-26.  ISSN: 1042-1726.  Abstract:
    "The way in which text is represented on a computer affects the
    kinds of uses to which it can be put by its creator and by
    subsequent users.  The electronic document model currently in use
    is impoverished and restrictive.  The authors agree that text is
    best represented as an ordered hierarchy of content object[s]
    (OHCO), because that is what text really is.  This model conforms
    with emerging standards such as SGML and contains within it
    advantages for the writer, publisher, and researcher.  The authors
    then describe how the hierarchical model can allow future use and
    reuse of the document as a database, hypertext or network."

Herwijnen, Eric van.  Practical SGML.  Dordrecht/Hingham, MA:
    Wolters Kluwer Academic Publishers. 200 pages. ISBN: 0-7923-
    0635-X. The book is designed as a "practical SGML survival-kit for
    SGML users (especially authors) rather than developers," and
    itself constitutes an experiment in SGML publishing."  A painless
    introduction to the essentials of SGML.

Wu, Gilbert.  SGML Theory and Practice.  British Library Research
    Paper 68.  British Library Research and Development Department,
    1989. ISSN 0269-9257 [68]; ISBN 0-7123-3211-1. 93 pages.

2. SGML Manuals (Commentary & Indices)

Bryan, Martin.  SGML: An Author's Guide to the Standard
    Generalized Markup Language.  Wokingham/Reading/New York:
    Addison-Wesley, 1988. ISBN 0-201-17535-5 (pbk); LC CALL NO.:
    QA76.73.S44 B79 1988.  380 pages.  A highly detailed and
    useful manual explaining and illustrating features of ISO 8879.

Goldfarb, Charles F. The SGML Handbook.  Oxford: Oxford
    University Press.  Fall, 1990.  ISBN: 0198537379. Announced as
    a "monumental 560-page work" by IBM Senior Systems Analyst and
    acknowledged "father of SGML."  The book constitutes an annotated,
    cross-referenced and indexed copy of the ISO 8879 Standard and
    Amendment 1, with annotations, tutorials and reference material.
    See "News. New Goldfarb Book About SGML," EPSIG News 3/1
    (March 1990) 4 and further details in (GCA's) TECHInfo
    (July 1990) 1.

Smith, Joan M.; Stutely, Robert S.  SGML: The Users' Guide to
    ISO 8879. Chichester/New York: Ellis Horwood/Halsted, 1988.
    ISBN 0-7458-0221-4 (Ellis Horwood) and 0-470-21126-1 (Halsted);
    LC CALL NO.: QA76.73.S44 S44 1988.  The book includes subject indices
    to ISO 8879. An overview of the book may be found in the SGML Users'
    Group Newsletter 9 (August 1988) 9.

3. SGML Implementations

Guidelines for the Encoding and Interchange of Machine
    Readable Texts, eds. C. Michael Sperberg-McQueen and Lou
    Burnard.  TEI-P1, Version 1.0  15-July-1990.  xiv + 280 pages.
    This volume represents the results of work in Phase I of the
    International Text Encoding Initiative, sponsored by ACH/ACL/ALLC
    and several advisory associations.  The publication describes and
    illustrates mechanisms (some experimental) for SGML markup of many
    kinds of documents, especially for humanities fields (literary and
    linguistic study).  Contact the editors: in the US,
    Michael Sperberg-McQueen; BITNET: <U35395@UICVM>; Computer Center
    (M/C 135); University of Illinois at Chicago; Box 6998; Chicago,
    IL  60680; Tel: (312) 996-2981; in the UK, Lou Burnard; JANET:
    <[hidden email]>; Oxford University Computing Service; 13
    Banbury Road; Oxford OX2 6NN; Tel: (44) 865-273238.

Standard for Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup.
    (ANSI/NISO Z39.59-1988.  Version 2.  EPSIG/American Association
    of Publishers, August, 1987.  This document was developed over
    several years as the "AAP Standard," it is now designated by
    EPSIG/AAP as "the Electronic Manuscript Standard" or simply as the
    "Standard."  It is SGML-conforming, and provides a suggested
    tagset for authors and publishers.  The document has been
    recommended for "fast track" ISO approval by working group 6 (TC
    46/SC 4/WG 6).   EPSIG (Electronic Publication Special Interest
    Group) also publishes the newsletter EPSIG News in support
    of its manuscript standard, and generally in support of SGML.
    Contact: EPSIG; Ms. Betsy Kiser; c/o OCLC, Mail Code 278; 6565
    Frantz Road; Dublin, OH  43017-0702; Tel: (614) 764-6195; Fax:
    (614) 764-6096.

Warmer, Jos; van Egmond, Sylvia.  "The Implementation of the
    Amsterdam SGML Parser." Electronic Publishing: Origination,
    Dissemination and Design (EPOdd) 2/2 (July 1989) 3-28. ISSN:
    0894-3982.  Abstract: The Standard Generalized Markup Language
    (SGML) is an ISO Standard that specifies a language for document
    representation.  This paper gives a short introduction to SGML and
    describes the (Vrije Universiteit) Amsterdam SGML Parser and the
    problems we encountered in implementing the Standard.  These
    problems include the interpretation of the Standard in places
    where it is ambiguous and the technical problems in parsing SGML

4. Standards Publications

ISO 8879: Information Processing -- Text and Office Systems
    -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).  International
    Organization for Standardization.  Ref. No. ISO 8879-1986 (E).
    Geneva/New York, 1986.  [A one-page tech note on the ISO (as a
    FIPS document, FIPS-PUB-152) provides the following abstract (see
    "Publishing Standard Allows for the Transfer of Documents from
    Author to Publisher" [NTIS Tech Note, 081914000; National Bureau
    of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD; May 1989].)  Abstract: This
    citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology
    available for utilization.  A Federal Information Processing
    Standard (FIPS) recently approved by the Secretary of Commerce
    should help federal agencies improve their communications with
    publishing organizations.  (FIPS are developed by NIST for use by
    the federal government.)  The new standard, called Standard
    Generalized Markup Language (SGML), provides a common way for
    defining markup languages so documents can be transferred from
    author to publisher in a standardized format.  By providing a
    coherent and unambiguous syntax for describing the elements within
    a document, SGML makes it easier to move unformatted textual data
    among different installations and processing systems.  Developed
    by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and
    the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) with assistance
    from NIST, the SGML standard is already being used by the
    Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) program of
    the Department of Defense to develop a military specification.
    NIST is providing technical support for the CALS program.  In
    addition, NIST has developed the first set of conformance tests
    for SGML; ISO and ANSI are considering using these tests for their
    own test suites.  For possible addenda and changes to 8879, see
    "Recomendations for a Possible Revision of ISO 8879. ISO/IEC
    JTC1/SC18/WG8 N931 [Part I]," TAG 12 (December 1989)
    6-8 and "Recomendations for a Possible Revision of ISO 8879. Part
    II. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18/WG8 N931,"  TAG 13 (February 1990)

ISO/TR 9573 Techniques for Using Standard Generalized Markup Language
    (SGML) December 1, 1988.  Ed. Anders Berglund.  A major revision
    underway (as of May 1990) will result in a TR with (16) parts: (1) SGML
    Tutorial (2) Basic Techniques (3) Advanced Techniques (4) Using Short
    References for Identifying Markup (5) Using non-Latin Alphabets
    (6) Referencing and Synchronisation (7) Mathematics and Chemistry
    (8) Tables (9) Using SGML for Computer-to-Computer Interchange
    (10) Designing Applications for Database Interfacing (11) Application
    at ISO CS for International Standards and Technical Reports
    (12) Public Entity Sets for General and Publishing Symbols (13) Public
    Entity Sets for Mathematics and Science (14) Public Entity Sets for
    Latin Based Alphabets (15) Public Entity Sets for non-Latin Based
    Alphabets (16) Public Entity Sets for Ideograms (adapted from
    Ludo Van Vooren, "SGML Standards Committee Update: Activities of
    ISO SC 18 WG8," TAG 14 (May 1990) [11-] 12.  See also Joan M. Smith
    in "More Liaison Statements to ISO," SGML Users' Group Newsletter 13
    (August 1989) 6-7. A description of this ISO document is found in
    "Publication of Techniques for Using SGML," SGML Users' Group Newsletter
    11 (January 1989) 3-4.

Other Standards Related to SGML 8879:

ISO 639 Code for the Representation of Names of Languages.

ISO 646-1973 7-bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange

ISO 2022-1982 Information Processing -- ISO 7-bit and 8-bit Coded
     Character Sets -- Code Extension Techniques.

ISO 2375-1974 Data Processing -- Procedure for Registration of Escape

ISO 6429-1983 Additional Control Functions for Character Imaging Devices

ISO/DIS 6937 Coded Character Sets for Text Communication

ISO/DIS 7350 Text Communication -- Registration of Graphic Character

ISO 8613: Information Processing -- Text and Office Systems -- Office Document
     Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Formats.

ISO 8859 8-bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets. 8 parts.

ISO 8879 SGML, Amendment No 1. 1 July 1988.  15 pages.

ISO 9069 Information Processing -- SGML Support Facilities -- SGML Document
     Interchange Format (SDIF).

ISO 9070 Information Processing -- SGML Suport Facilities -- Registration
     Procedures for Public Text Owner Identifiers. February 1, 1990. 5 pages.

ISO/DIS 9541 Information Processing -- Font and Character Information
     Interchange. 1989.

ISO/TR 9544 Information Processing -- Computer-Assisted Publishing --
     Vocabulary (15 July 1988) 43 pages.

ISO/DIS 10036 Procedure for Registration of Glyph and Glyph-Collection
     Identifiers. 1989. [Includes text of ISO/DIS 9541 on registration]

ISO/DTR 10037 Information Processing -- SGML and Text Entry Systems --
     Guidelines for SGML Syntax-Directed Editing Systems. 1989.

ISO/IEC DP 10179 Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL)
     (ISO Project 1988, 1989.  Edited by Sharon Adler.

ISO/IEC DP 10180 Standard Page Description Language (SPDL).

ISO 10646 (Character Encoding)

TR XXXX Operational Model for Text Description and Processing Language

5. Serial Publications Dedicated to SGML

<TAG> The SGML Newsletter.   This dedicated SGML publication
    is one of several forms of support given to SGML by
    the Graphic Communications Association; GCA sponsors other
    publications, SGML seminars, workshops and SGML events.  Contact:
    Graphic Communications Association; 1730 North Lynn Street,
    Suite 604; Arlington, VA  22209-2085; Tel: (703) 841-8160; Telex:
    510-600-0889; Fax: (703) 841-8171.

SGML Users' Group Bulletin.

SGML Users' Group Newsletter.  Both publications are sponsored by the
    International SGML Users' Group, founded in 1984 by Joan Smith.
    Contact: Mr. Stephen G. Downie; SGML Users' Group, Secretary; c/o
    SoftQuad Inc.; 720 Spadina Avenue; Toronto, Ontario; CANADA M5S
    2T9; Tel: 1-416-963-8337.

6. E-mail Forums

BITNET: TEI-L@UICVM  The electronic discussion forum for the Text
        Encoding Initiative (implementing SGML for markup of texts
        in academic applications, particularly the humanities.  Some
        discussion focuses on theoretical/practical issues of SGML.
        Send an interactive BITNET message, or standard mail to
        listserv@uicvm with the single line (as the first line):

            subscribe tei-l your_name

USENET/UUCP News:  comp.text.sgml  (Moderator: Ed Vielmetti)
        This discussion forum for SGML began in Fall 1990, and has
        support from a number of experts using or developing commercial
        applications of SGML (e.g., SoftQuad; Open Text Systems; Info-
        Design).  The news forum should be accessible from any UNIX site;
        see your local UNIX gurus.

7. Further Bibliography on SGML

Cover, Robin; Duncan, Nicholas; Barnard, David.  "A Bibliography
    on Structured Text."  Technical Report 90-281.  Queen's University,
    Kingston, Ontario. June, 1990.  104 pages, 887 entries.  This is a
    preliminary print version of a bibliographic and information
    database (compiled by Robin Cover), structured in SGML-database
    and formatted with SGML ->> BibTeX utilities developed at Queen's
    University by Nick Duncan and David Barnard.  Contact: Department
    of Computing and Information Science; Queen's University;
    Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6; Tel: (613) 545-6056.  The
    bibliographic database also contains sections on SGML supporting
    agencies, institutions and SGML software vendors.
    The electronic version will be placed on a public file server in
    late 1990 or in 1991.  New bibliographic references and other SGML
    information for this database are welcome: please send citations
    (published or unpublished materials: technical reports, working papers,
    internal memoranda, articles, product announcements, product reviews) to
    Robin Cover via electronic or postal mail.

    Robin Cover                   BITNET: zrcc1001@smuvm1
    DTS - Semitics & OT           INTERNET: [hidden email]
    3909 Swiss Avenue             UUCP: convex!txsil!robin
    Dallas, TX  75204             TEL: (214) 296-1783/841-3657