At the suggestion of Lou Burnard (a TEI-L list-owner and TEI editor)
I am posting the following short bibliography on SGML. Archive copy will
be available later on the BITNET (uicvm) listserver as SHORTBIB MEMO. I
submit this bibliography in the hope that SGML discussions germane to
the work of TEI will be enriched if all contributors are informed about
the basics of SGML as a metalanguage. A number of popular
misconceptions about fundamental concepts in SGML (sometimes billed as
"a tagset" or "a formatting language" or "a markup language" -- none are
correct) frequently obscure public discussions. Please pass along this
bibliography to interested parties, and encourage reading of at least
one of the titles in section 1 ("Introductions to SGML"). Many worthy
substitutes could be found among the hundreds of articles and books on
SGML, but I have found these representative titles helpful. Note also
sub "6. Email-forums" that a dedicated SGML discussion may be found on
UseNet/UUCP News (comp.text.sgml), where Yuri Rubinsky and other SGML
experts have submitted highly informative postings.
STANDARD GENERALIZED MARKUP LANGUAGE (SGML)
1. INTRODUCTIONS TO SGML
2. SGML MANUALS (COMMENTARY & INDICES)
3. SGML IMPLEMENTATIONS
4. STANDARDS PUBLICATIONS
5. SERIAL PUBLICATIONS DEDICATED TO SGML
6. E-MAIL FORUMS
7. FURTHER BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SGML
1. INTRODUCTIONS TO SGML
Barron, David. "Why Use SGML?" Electronic Publishing 2/1
(April 1989) 3-24. CODEN: EPODEU; ISSN 0894-3982. Abstract: The
Standard Generalised Markup Language (SGML) is a recently-adopted
International Standard (ISO 8879). The paper presents some
background material on markup systems, gives a brief account of
SGML, and attempts to clarify the precise nature and purpose of
SGML, which are widely misunderstood. It then goes on to explore
the reasons why SGML should (or should not) be used in preference
to older-established systems. A summary of the article is also
printed in "Why Use SGML," SGML Users' Group Newsletter
13 (August 1989) 10.
[Burnard, Lou.] "Use of SGML Markup." Chapter 2 (pp. 9-38) in
Guidelines for the Encoding and Interchange of Machine-Readable Texts
(Text Encoding Initiative, Draft Version 1.0 - See below)
Coombs, James; Renear, Allen; DeRose, Steven . "Markup Systems and
the Future of Scholarly Text Processing." CACM 30/11
(1987) 933-947. ISSN: 0001-0782; cf. CACM 31/7 (July
1988) 810-11) Abstract: The authors argue that many word
processing systems distract authors from their tasks of research
and composition, toward concern with typographic and other tasks.
Emphasis on "WYSIWYG", while helpful for display, has ignored a
more fundamental concern: representing document structure. Four
main types of markup are analyzed: Punctuational (spaces,
punctuation,...), presentational (layout, font choice,...),
procedural (formatting commands), and descriptive (mnemonic labels
for document elements). Only some ancient manuscripts have
no markup. Any form of markup can be formatted for
display, but descriptive markup is privileged because it reflects
the underlying structure. ISO SGML is a descriptive markup
standard, but most benefits are available even before a standard
is widely accepted. A descriptively marked-up document is not
tied to formatting or printing capabilities. It is maintainable,
for the typographic realization of any type of element can be
changed in a single operation, with guaranteed consistency. It
can be understood even with <emph>no</> markup formatting
software: compare "<blockquote>" to ".sk 3 a; .in +10 -10; .ls 0;
.cp 2". It is relatively portable across views, applications and
systems. Descriptive markup also minimizes cognitive demands: the
author need only recall (or recognize in a menu) a mnemonic for
the desired element, rather than also deciding how it is currently
to appear, and recalling how to obtain that appearance. Most of
this extra work is thrown away before final copy; descriptive
markup allows authors to focus on authorship. (abstract supplied
by Steve DeRose)
DeRose, Steven J.; Durand, David G.; Mylonas, Elli; Renear, Allen
H. "What is Text, Really?" Journal of Computing in Higher
Education 1/2 (Winter 1990) 3-26. ISSN: 1042-1726. Abstract:
"The way in which text is represented on a computer affects the
kinds of uses to which it can be put by its creator and by
subsequent users. The electronic document model currently in use
is impoverished and restrictive. The authors agree that text is
best represented as an ordered hierarchy of content object[s]
(OHCO), because that is what text really is. This model conforms
with emerging standards such as SGML and contains within it
advantages for the writer, publisher, and researcher. The authors
then describe how the hierarchical model can allow future use and
reuse of the document as a database, hypertext or network."
Herwijnen, Eric van. Practical SGML. Dordrecht/Hingham, MA:
Wolters Kluwer Academic Publishers. 200 pages. ISBN: 0-7923-
0635-X. The book is designed as a "practical SGML survival-kit for
SGML users (especially authors) rather than developers," and
itself constitutes an experiment in SGML publishing." A painless
introduction to the essentials of SGML.
Wu, Gilbert. SGML Theory and Practice. British Library Research
Paper 68. British Library Research and Development Department,
1989. ISSN 0269-9257 ; ISBN 0-7123-3211-1. 93 pages.
2. SGML Manuals (Commentary & Indices)
Bryan, Martin. SGML: An Author's Guide to the Standard
Generalized Markup Language. Wokingham/Reading/New York:
Addison-Wesley, 1988. ISBN 0-201-17535-5 (pbk); LC CALL NO.:
QA76.73.S44 B79 1988. 380 pages. A highly detailed and
useful manual explaining and illustrating features of ISO 8879.
Goldfarb, Charles F. The SGML Handbook. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. Fall, 1990. ISBN: 0198537379. Announced as
a "monumental 560-page work" by IBM Senior Systems Analyst and
acknowledged "father of SGML." The book constitutes an annotated,
cross-referenced and indexed copy of the ISO 8879 Standard and
Amendment 1, with annotations, tutorials and reference material.
See "News. New Goldfarb Book About SGML," EPSIG News 3/1
(March 1990) 4 and further details in (GCA's) TECHInfo
(July 1990) 1.
Smith, Joan M.; Stutely, Robert S. SGML: The Users' Guide to
ISO 8879. Chichester/New York: Ellis Horwood/Halsted, 1988.
ISBN 0-7458-0221-4 (Ellis Horwood) and 0-470-21126-1 (Halsted);
LC CALL NO.: QA76.73.S44 S44 1988. The book includes subject indices
to ISO 8879. An overview of the book may be found in the SGML Users'
Group Newsletter 9 (August 1988) 9.
3. SGML Implementations
Guidelines for the Encoding and Interchange of Machine
Readable Texts, eds. C. Michael Sperberg-McQueen and Lou
Burnard. TEI-P1, Version 1.0 15-July-1990. xiv + 280 pages.
This volume represents the results of work in Phase I of the
International Text Encoding Initiative, sponsored by ACH/ACL/ALLC
and several advisory associations. The publication describes and
illustrates mechanisms (some experimental) for SGML markup of many
kinds of documents, especially for humanities fields (literary and
linguistic study). Contact the editors: in the US,
Michael Sperberg-McQueen; BITNET: <U35395@UICVM>; Computer Center
(M/C 135); University of Illinois at Chicago; Box 6998; Chicago,
IL 60680; Tel: (312) 996-2981; in the UK, Lou Burnard; JANET:
<[hidden email]>; Oxford University Computing Service; 13
Banbury Road; Oxford OX2 6NN; Tel: (44) 865-273238.
Standard for Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup.
(ANSI/NISO Z39.59-1988. Version 2. EPSIG/American Association
of Publishers, August, 1987. This document was developed over
several years as the "AAP Standard," it is now designated by
EPSIG/AAP as "the Electronic Manuscript Standard" or simply as the
"Standard." It is SGML-conforming, and provides a suggested
tagset for authors and publishers. The document has been
recommended for "fast track" ISO approval by working group 6 (TC
46/SC 4/WG 6). EPSIG (Electronic Publication Special Interest
Group) also publishes the newsletter EPSIG News in support
of its manuscript standard, and generally in support of SGML.
Contact: EPSIG; Ms. Betsy Kiser; c/o OCLC, Mail Code 278; 6565
Frantz Road; Dublin, OH 43017-0702; Tel: (614) 764-6195; Fax:
Warmer, Jos; van Egmond, Sylvia. "The Implementation of the
Amsterdam SGML Parser." Electronic Publishing: Origination,
Dissemination and Design (EPOdd) 2/2 (July 1989) 3-28. ISSN:
0894-3982. Abstract: The Standard Generalized Markup Language
(SGML) is an ISO Standard that specifies a language for document
representation. This paper gives a short introduction to SGML and
describes the (Vrije Universiteit) Amsterdam SGML Parser and the
problems we encountered in implementing the Standard. These
problems include the interpretation of the Standard in places
where it is ambiguous and the technical problems in parsing SGML
4. Standards Publications
ISO 8879: Information Processing -- Text and Office Systems
-- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). International
Organization for Standardization. Ref. No. ISO 8879-1986 (E).
Geneva/New York, 1986. [A one-page tech note on the ISO (as a
FIPS document, FIPS-PUB-152) provides the following abstract (see
"Publishing Standard Allows for the Transfer of Documents from
Author to Publisher" [NTIS Tech Note, 081914000; National Bureau
of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD; May 1989].) Abstract: This
citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology
available for utilization. A Federal Information Processing
Standard (FIPS) recently approved by the Secretary of Commerce
should help federal agencies improve their communications with
publishing organizations. (FIPS are developed by NIST for use by
the federal government.) The new standard, called Standard
Generalized Markup Language (SGML), provides a common way for
defining markup languages so documents can be transferred from
author to publisher in a standardized format. By providing a
coherent and unambiguous syntax for describing the elements within
a document, SGML makes it easier to move unformatted textual data
among different installations and processing systems. Developed
by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and
the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) with assistance
from NIST, the SGML standard is already being used by the
Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) program of
the Department of Defense to develop a military specification.
NIST is providing technical support for the CALS program. In
addition, NIST has developed the first set of conformance tests
for SGML; ISO and ANSI are considering using these tests for their
own test suites. For possible addenda and changes to 8879, see
"Recomendations for a Possible Revision of ISO 8879. ISO/IEC
JTC1/SC18/WG8 N931 [Part I]," TAG 12 (December 1989)
6-8 and "Recomendations for a Possible Revision of ISO 8879. Part
II. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC18/WG8 N931," TAG 13 (February 1990)
ISO/TR 9573 Techniques for Using Standard Generalized Markup Language
(SGML) December 1, 1988. Ed. Anders Berglund. A major revision
underway (as of May 1990) will result in a TR with (16) parts: (1) SGML
Tutorial (2) Basic Techniques (3) Advanced Techniques (4) Using Short
References for Identifying Markup (5) Using non-Latin Alphabets
(6) Referencing and Synchronisation (7) Mathematics and Chemistry
(8) Tables (9) Using SGML for Computer-to-Computer Interchange
(10) Designing Applications for Database Interfacing (11) Application
at ISO CS for International Standards and Technical Reports
(12) Public Entity Sets for General and Publishing Symbols (13) Public
Entity Sets for Mathematics and Science (14) Public Entity Sets for
Latin Based Alphabets (15) Public Entity Sets for non-Latin Based
Alphabets (16) Public Entity Sets for Ideograms (adapted from
Ludo Van Vooren, "SGML Standards Committee Update: Activities of
ISO SC 18 WG8," TAG 14 (May 1990) [11-] 12. See also Joan M. Smith
in "More Liaison Statements to ISO," SGML Users' Group Newsletter 13
(August 1989) 6-7. A description of this ISO document is found in
"Publication of Techniques for Using SGML," SGML Users' Group Newsletter
11 (January 1989) 3-4.
Other Standards Related to SGML 8879:
ISO 639 Code for the Representation of Names of Languages.
ISO 646-1973 7-bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange
ISO 2022-1982 Information Processing -- ISO 7-bit and 8-bit Coded
Character Sets -- Code Extension Techniques.
ISO 2375-1974 Data Processing -- Procedure for Registration of Escape
ISO 6429-1983 Additional Control Functions for Character Imaging Devices
ISO/DIS 6937 Coded Character Sets for Text Communication
ISO/DIS 7350 Text Communication -- Registration of Graphic Character
ISO 8613: Information Processing -- Text and Office Systems -- Office Document
Architecture (ODA) and Interchange Formats.
ISO 8859 8-bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Sets. 8 parts.
ISO 8879 SGML, Amendment No 1. 1 July 1988. 15 pages.
ISO 9069 Information Processing -- SGML Support Facilities -- SGML Document
Interchange Format (SDIF).
ISO 9070 Information Processing -- SGML Suport Facilities -- Registration
Procedures for Public Text Owner Identifiers. February 1, 1990. 5 pages.
ISO/DIS 9541 Information Processing -- Font and Character Information
ISO/TR 9544 Information Processing -- Computer-Assisted Publishing --
Vocabulary (15 July 1988) 43 pages.
ISO/DIS 10036 Procedure for Registration of Glyph and Glyph-Collection
Identifiers. 1989. [Includes text of ISO/DIS 9541 on registration]
ISO/DTR 10037 Information Processing -- SGML and Text Entry Systems --
Guidelines for SGML Syntax-Directed Editing Systems. 1989.
ISO/IEC DP 10179 Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL)
(ISO Project 126.96.36.199). 1988, 1989. Edited by Sharon Adler.
ISO/IEC DP 10180 Standard Page Description Language (SPDL).
ISO 10646 (Character Encoding)
TR XXXX Operational Model for Text Description and Processing Language
5. Serial Publications Dedicated to SGML
<TAG> The SGML Newsletter. This dedicated SGML publication
is one of several forms of support given to SGML by
the Graphic Communications Association; GCA sponsors other
publications, SGML seminars, workshops and SGML events. Contact:
Graphic Communications Association; 1730 North Lynn Street,
Suite 604; Arlington, VA 22209-2085; Tel: (703) 841-8160; Telex:
510-600-0889; Fax: (703) 841-8171.
SGML Users' Group Bulletin.
SGML Users' Group Newsletter. Both publications are sponsored by the
International SGML Users' Group, founded in 1984 by Joan Smith.
Contact: Mr. Stephen G. Downie; SGML Users' Group, Secretary; c/o
SoftQuad Inc.; 720 Spadina Avenue; Toronto, Ontario; CANADA M5S
2T9; Tel: 1-416-963-8337.
6. E-mail Forums
BITNET: TEI-L@UICVM The electronic discussion forum for the Text
Encoding Initiative (implementing SGML for markup of texts
in academic applications, particularly the humanities. Some
discussion focuses on theoretical/practical issues of SGML.
Send an interactive BITNET message, or standard mail to
listserv@uicvm with the single line (as the first line):
subscribe tei-l your_name
USENET/UUCP News: comp.text.sgml (Moderator: Ed Vielmetti)
This discussion forum for SGML began in Fall 1990, and has
support from a number of experts using or developing commercial
applications of SGML (e.g., SoftQuad; Open Text Systems; Info-
Design). The news forum should be accessible from any UNIX site;
see your local UNIX gurus.
7. Further Bibliography on SGML
Cover, Robin; Duncan, Nicholas; Barnard, David. "A Bibliography
on Structured Text." Technical Report 90-281. Queen's University,
Kingston, Ontario. June, 1990. 104 pages, 887 entries. This is a
preliminary print version of a bibliographic and information
database (compiled by Robin Cover), structured in SGML-database
and formatted with SGML ->> BibTeX utilities developed at Queen's
University by Nick Duncan and David Barnard. Contact: Department
of Computing and Information Science; Queen's University;
Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6; Tel: (613) 545-6056. The
bibliographic database also contains sections on SGML supporting
agencies, institutions and SGML software vendors.
The electronic version will be placed on a public file server in
late 1990 or in 1991. New bibliographic references and other SGML
information for this database are welcome: please send citations
(published or unpublished materials: technical reports, working papers,
internal memoranda, articles, product announcements, product reviews) to
Robin Cover via electronic or postal mail.
Robin Cover BITNET: zrcc1001@smuvm1
DTS - Semitics & OT INTERNET: [hidden email]
3909 Swiss Avenue UUCP: convex!txsil!robin
Dallas, TX 75204 TEL: (214) 296-1783/841-3657
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